Tuesday, 18 September 2018

CIRCUMNAVIGATING AUSTRALIA'S COLONIAL HISTORY - TROVE TUESDAY 18th Sept 2018 Pt. 11






Note: approximate position

Ever wanted to circumnavigate Australia? We still have a way to go...we'll be going on quite a journey, at least virtually, and clockwise. So as to make sure all states and territories are covered, we started in Western Australia and explored a little of the early history of a small part of this massive state via TROVE...from Rottnest Island to Broome..then across to Katherine Gorge, then Tennant Creek, from there to Darwin on the way to the Tiwi Islands, Bathurst and Melville.

We've had to travel back to Darwin, before leaving the Northern Territory, then across to Cairns, in North Queensland... but we didn't stop there, instead headed to the tropical north, to one of the most beautiful areas you can imagine... isolated yes, but perfect for that great getaway... to Cape Tribulation. It seems you loved that area so well, that Cairns was the obvious place to travel to next... not too far south. That was another very popular place...as was our visit to Fraser Island...


We then headed inland, on an approximately 6 hours flight to a place steeped in history.. what a contrast to the sub tropical island of Fraser ...no waterfalls or clear lakes or rainforest, but Longreach has so much to offer.

We then returned to Hervey Bay, by plane, and then took a short drive of approximately 25 minutes to a town founded in 1847... the charming historical town of Maryborough.


What a contrast this next place is, though it is also very much steeped in history... a beautiful place, but it was a place of horror, of deprivation and loneliness... St. Helena Island. To get there, we will go to Manly, just over three hours drive from Maryborough and then a ferry ride across to the island. It is just 5km from the mouth of the Brisbane River and approx. 8km northeast from Manly.

St. Helena Island is now heritage listed and is a national park. Only a few of the original buildings remain, the ruins still standing as if in defiance of nature. According to some, the island was named after the other St. Helena, of Napoleon fame, however others say it was only changed from the aboriginal name of Noogoon after an aboriginal called Napoleon was exiled there in 1826.

 It is close enough to the mainland to be seen from some of the bay suburbs. In the 19th century, it was a quarantine station, but then became a prison in 1867.. for the next 65 years.


The Age Melbourne 10 Oct 1912




Wikipedia, "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.phptitle=St_Helena_Island_National_Park&oldid=843503739"
gives the following...


"In the early 1860s, as Brisbane's gaol at Petrie Terrace became more and more crowded, about 30 prisoners were transferred to an old hulk, called the Proserpine, anchored near the mouth of the Brisbane River. In 1866, as part of their labours, the prisoners were taken each morning across the waters of Moreton Bay by whaleboat to St Helena Island. Here they were put to work sinking wells, clearing scrub, quarrying stone and building accommodation for a new quarantine station.[3] They were brought back to the hulk each night.
Government plans for the quarantine station were scrapped later that year — because the conditions at Petrie Terrace gaol had become so unbearable, the prisoners from the Prosperpine were set to work building a gaol instead. On 14 May 1867, the Governor of Queensland signed a proclamation declaring the island 'a place whereat offenders under order or sentence of hard labour or penal servitude may be detained'. In the years that followed, St Helena was to become Queensland's showpiece prison.
The toughest years on St Helena were undoubtedly the early ones, and the ruins on the island testify to the hard work that the prisoners had to do. These, too, were the years of severe punishment — the lash, the dreaded dark underground cells, the gag, and energy-sapping shot drill. These were the years that gained St Helena its fearful reputation as 'the hell hole of the Pacific' and 'Queensland's Inferno'. But in these days tough measures were used, because St Helena housed some of the country's worst criminals. In 1891, for example, there were 17 murderers, 27 men convicted of manslaughter, 26 men convicted of stabbings and shootings, and countless individuals responsible for assaults, rapes and similar violent crimes.


By the turn of the century, the St Helena establishment had grown to accommodate over 300 prisoners in a maze of buildings surrounded by a high stockade wall. It operated as a self-sufficient settlement, and even exported some of its produce to the mainland, including bricks for many of Brisbane's buildings, clothes to be sold in Brisbane, and white rope for ships, which was made from imported Sisal Hemp plants. In the island workshops the prisoners were taught such trades as carpentry, boot making, tailoring, tinsmith, saddle making, bread baking and butchery.[3] The island boasted a prize dairy herd which won many awards at the Brisbane Exhibitions. The island was extensively farmed,
Plans for the prison, 1868

page2image33872page2image34032page2image34192page2image34352page2image34512page2image34672
particularly in the later years as a prison.[3] Maize, potatoes, lucerne and other vegetables thrived in the rich volcanic soil and the sugar mill crushed over 75 tons of locally grown sugar annually by 1880. In many ways, St Helena was regarded as a model prison for the times, and held in high regard by visiting interstate and overseas penologists.
By the 1920s, the prison had begun to show its age. In its latter years, after the majority of prisoners and the workshops had been removed to the Boggo Road Gaol on the mainland,[3] the island became a prison farm for trusties, with a few dozen resident inmates tenaciously dismantling the ageing edifice. Many prison buildings remain. The last prisoner left the island on 15 February 1933. The last prison superintendent was Mr Patrick Roche."




1. Warders' buildings on St. Helena Island, 1928














2. One of the warder's cottages on St. Helena Island, 1939






3. Prisoners in the saddlers' shop on St Helena Island, 1911












4.Prisoners making uniforms in the tailors' workshop on St Helena Island, 1916. 












5. Horsedrawn tram with officials on
St Helena Island, Queensland, ca. 1928       










       6. Gun at St. Helena Island

Daily Herald 31 Mar 1914





Prisoners working on flax at the old sugar mill site on St. Helena Island, 1912












   Cell block on St. Helena Island, 1939

Old Gaol on St. Helena Island          


  Horsedrawn tram on St. Helena Island, 1928

All photos above are out of copyright, sourced via TROVE as are the similar photos below...
Most are available via the John Oxley Library, State Library Queensland


An extract from
Australian Town and Country Journal (Sydney, NSW : 1870 - 1907), Saturday 15 September 1883, page 26  National Library of Australia  http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article71003785
talks about the plans and then the results 
Please click to enlarge..


Escape attempts happened regularly

The Mercury Hobart 22 Dec 1924




North West Champion Moree 17 Mar 1930

Sydney Mail (NSW : 1912 - 1938), Wednesday 30 September 1936, page 6
National Library of Australia http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article160636407


In later years, even the Australian Women's Weekly featured an article on St. Helena Island..
Australian Women's Weekly (1933 - 1982), Wednesday 17 January 1979, page 22
National Library of Australia    http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article585886
Please click to enlarge.. read across the page..





Interior of the St Helena Prison 












Prisoner eating benches on St. Helena, ca. 1928












How St. Helena Island looks now..

                                                                                View of the Butchery and Bakery areas at St Helena, Queensland, Australia

 merlin9911 - My original work          CC0
File:St Helena Island - Butcher Baker.jpg
Created: 8 May 2010










St Helena Island Penal Establishment ruins, 2015.
Image courtesy of Georgia Grier, Museum Assistant.




















Prisoners who were released from St Helena Island prison 17 November 1893.Mug Shots - Prisoners Barcaldine Shearers' Strike 1891. All released from St Helena Prison 17.11.1893. Julian Alexander S. Stuart; Patrick J. Griffin; Charles H. Smith-Barry; Edward H. Murphy; Alexander Forrester; Hugh O. Blackwell.











The Queensland State Archives has the following data set...

St Helena prisoners 1863 to 1936

This index records the names of all prisoners who were held at St Helena Penal Establishment between 1863 and 1936. Read more about these St Helena records.
St. Helena Prisoner Index


Do you have any connections with St. Helena? Maybe a missing ancestor can be found in the records..

There are tours of St. Helena available, both night and day and you can learn more about the history there. As mentioned previously the island is now a heritage listed national park.



Tuesday, 11 September 2018

CIRCUMNAVIGATING AUSTRALIA'S COLONIAL HISTORY - TROVE TUESDAY 11th Sept. 2018 Pt. 10



Note: approximate position

Ever wanted to circumnavigate Australia? We still have a way to go...we'll be going on quite a journey, at least virtually, and clockwise. So as to make sure all states and territories are covered, we started in Western Australia and explored a little of the early history of a small part of this massive state via TROVE...from Rottnest Island to Broome..then across to Katherine Gorge, then Tennant Creek, from there to Darwin on the way to the Tiwi Islands, Bathurst and Melville.

We've had to travel back to Darwin, before leaving the Northern Territory, then across to Cairns, in North Queensland... but we didn't stop there, instead headed to the tropical north, to one of the most beautiful areas you can imagine... isolated yes, but perfect for that great getaway... to Cape Tribulation. It seems you loved that area so well, that Cairns was the obvious place to travel to next... not too far south. That was another very popular place...as was our visit to Fraser Island...


Last week we headed inland, on an approximately 6 hours flight to a place steeped in history.. what a contrast to the sub tropical island of Fraser ...no waterfalls or clear lakes or rainforest, but Longreach has so much to offer.

This week we are returning to Hervey Bay, by plane, and then taking a short drive of approximately 25 minutes to a town founded in 1847... the charming historical town of Maryborough.

Wikipedia has quite a bit of detail re Maryborough at 

Colonial History

"Maryborough was founded in 1847, was proclaimed a municipality in 1861, and became a city in 1905.[7] During the second half of the 1800s, the city was a major port of entry to immigrants arriving in Queensland from all parts of the world.[8]
The name was derived from the Mary River which was named in 1847 after Lady Mary Lennox (1790–1847)[9] the wife of Sir Charles Augustus Fitzroy, then Governor of the colony of New South Wales. Lady Mary was killed in a coach accident very soon after, devastating Sir Charles.
The first section of what is now the North Coast Line opened on 6 August 1881, connecting the mining town of Gympie to the river port at Maryborough and followed the Mary River valley. The Queensland Government was under constant pressure to reduce expenditure, and so despite the potential for the line to be part of a future main line, the line was constructed to pioneer standards with minimal earthworks, a sinuous alignment and 17.4 kg/m (35 lb/yd) lightweight rails.
Coal had been discovered at Burrum, 25 km north of Maryborough, and a line was constructed to serve the mine, opening in 1883. The line was extended to Bundaberg in 1888 so coal could be shipped there as well. When the Burrum line was built, it junctioned from the Maryborough line at Baddow, 3 km from the station, creating a triangular junction, with platforms ultimately being provided on all three sides. Maryborough station was situated immediately adjacent to the commercial centre of the city, and converting it into a through station would have been prohibitively expensive.
When through trains commenced running from Brisbane to Bundaberg and beyond, trains ran into Maryborough, a fresh steam locomotive was attached to the other end of the train, and it then departed.
Once diesel locomotives were introduced, there was no need to replace engines, and through trains paused at Baddow on the 3rd leg of the triangular junction before proceeding north. A one carriage connecting service was provided from Maryborough to meet the through train at Baddow, and then return. As trains became longer, the platform on the 3rd leg was not of sufficient length, and the trains would stop on the platform on the line to Maryborough, having to reverse out of, or back into the platform before proceeding further, adding about 15 minutes to the journey. The situation was finally resolved with the opening of the Maryborough West bypass in 1988."
Maryborough hit the headlines in 1905, for an outbreak of pneumonic plague, the only time that has ever happened in Australia.

"Australia's only outbreak of pneumonic plague occurred in Maryborough in 1905.[10] At the time Maryborough was Queensland's largest port—a reception centre for wool, meat, timber, sugar and other rural products. A freighter from Hong Kong, where plague was rampant, was in the Port of Maryborough about the time that a wharf worker named Richard O'Connell took home some sacking from the wharf, for his children to sleep on. Subsequently, five of the seven O'Connell children, two nurses, and a neighbour died from the disease. There were no more cases but the ensuing fear, panic, and hysteria totally consumed the town, and a huge crowd gathered to witness the family's house being burnt to the ground by health officials. A memorial fountain was built in the grounds of the City Hall and dedicated to the nurses, Cecelia Bauer and Rose Wiles.[11]"

The founding of Maryborough is described quite well in the Fraser Coast Chronicle...

"The founding of Maryborough"



LEFT: These pioneers, pictured at their settlement in 1860, were among the first people to settle at Maryborough.
LEFT: These pioneers, pictured at their settlement in 1860, were among the first people to settle at Maryborough.

THE history of Queensland is rich and diverse, a tale of exploration and adventure, with explorers carving a mark many thousands of kilometres from the other side of the world.
Early explorers James Cook, John Oxley and Matthew Flinders had only charted the coastline and little was known about the Wide Bay region, when in 1842, Andrew Petrie and a party explored the Wide Bay River (as the Mary River was then called) with escaped convicts who had lived with indigenous populations.
As part of the survey, Petrie discovered the site for the port while looking for good grazing land suitable for sheep.



ABOVE: This was the first primary school in the Wide Bay Burnett area, opened in 1862, on the corner of Alice and Lennox StS, Maryborough (where the fire station is). The school quickly outgrew this building and was moved to the immigration barracks in Kent St, Maryborough in 1877.
ABOVE: This was the first primary school in the Wide Bay Burnett area, opened in 1862, on the corner of Alice and Lennox StS, Maryborough (where the fire station is). The school quickly outgrew this building and was moved to the immigration barracks in Kent St, Maryborough in 1877."
You can read the rest of the article here...

Many of you will know that Maryborough was one of the busiest ports and quite a number of immigrants entered Queensland through this port... as did my husband's grandmother and her family in 1886. 
At Maryborough Wharves, ca 1870. First launched in September, 1870. Governor Blackall (ship) State Library of Queensland. out of copyright








Not only was it a very busy port, Maryborough is known for a number of industries, including ship building.
Ship building along the Mary River
Maryborough (ship)
File:StateLibQld 1 47056 Maryborough (ship).jpg


Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912), Saturday 26 January 1895, page 175 National Library of Australia  http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article162737584
Please click to enlarge..




Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912), Saturday 26 January 1895, page 175

MARYBOROUGH QUEENSLAND

Maryborough is the principal town in the Wide Bay and Burnett districts, situated on the river Mary, about 177 miles north west of Brisbane. It is a port of considerable importance, and enjoys regular communication with all ports north and south by mail steamers twice a week, besides several other steamers, sailing vessels, and craft of every kind. On the 4th of May 1842, Mr. Andrew Petrie, Mr. Henry Stuart Russell, and two other gentlemen left Brisbane on an exploring trip to the Wide Bay districts, and on the 17th of the same month they anchored at the mouth of a river which was afterwards named The Mary, in honour of Lady Fitzroy, wife of the Governor-in -Chief of New South Wales. The privations and difficulties experienced and encountered by this exploring party, the finding of 'Wandi' and ' Duramboi ' (two white men who were held prisoners by the aborigines for some years) ; the inquiry into the fate of the Stirling Castle, a vessel wrecked in the vicinity of Frazer's Island, the survivors of which were mostly roasted and eaten ; and the further labours and adventures of Mr. Petrie and his companions— are they not all written in the local chronicles ? The past is shrouded in mist, and the historian is compelled to weave the dazzling web of imagination around the few bare facts which have been preserved. It may be mentioned, however, that in July, 1817, Mr. Burnett was despatched by the New South Wales Government to make a further examination of the Wide Bay and Burnett districts. His report was immensely satisfactory to all parties, and to the few residents of Moreton Bay in particular. He stated that Wide Bay would never compete with Moreton Bay, although it would form an excellent harbour for coasting vessels, and would in the course of a few years become a place of considerable trade — subsequent events proving the accuracy of this judgment. Attention being thus directed to a navigable river and to a fertile district, population began to go northwards. Sheep and cattle stations were formed, boiling downs established, and the foundations of peaceful settlement were laid. The early history of Maryborough differs very little from that of many townships in Queensland and New South Wales. There was the era of bark humpies, then the age of wood and iron, and now the rounding-out and the enduring monuments of brick and stone. It was a peaceful and progressive evolution, advanced rapidly, perhaps, by the discovery of the Gympie goldfields in the sixties. From its inception to the present day, Maryborough was fortunate in capturing and retaining high -principled men—those who came out to the colony to make a home in it, and who were not at ease with their consciences unless they were doing their level best, not only for themselves but for the town of their adoption. Maryborough is the Glasgow of Queensland, and contains more Scotchmen than any other town in the colony. Perhaps that is the reason of its present enviable position, not only in regard to its practical but also its poetical characteristics. 
 The members for the town are Messrs. J. T. Annear and C. Powers, Ms.L.A., whilst Mr. N. E.N. Tooth represents the Burrun. 
MUNICIPAL. 
On the 2nd of February, 1851, Maryborough was established as a township, but it took a full decade to grow and be incorporated into a municipality, this important event taking place in March of 1861. On the 26th of April Mr. Henry Palmer was elected as first Mayor ; but his reign was short, for in August he was supplanted by Mr. John Eaton, who served the remainder of the term. Owing to various causes municipal government was not an entire success in Maryborough, and in June, 1874, the council lapsed, but was reincorporated during the following year, and since then has gone on abounding in good works and loans. The town has an area of 22 square miles and 100 miles of streets, no insignificant portion of this world's surface to be under the jurisdiction of one council. The population of the municipality is set down at 8700, and that of the district at about 13,000. The estimated capital value of rateable property is placed at £557,657 ; total revenue, £15,192; total expenditure, £15,936; rates received, £10,978 ; total assets, £83,5S3 ; total liabilities, £66,060. 

Continued at  ... National Library of Australia  http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article162737584

The following images are also sourced through TROVE...



  • Bridge, Maryborough Queensland, 1891
Creator
  • Richardson, Sidney
Published
  • 1891-01-01











Boys Grammar School, Maryborough Queensland, 1891. The former Maryborough Boys Grammar School was constructed in 1881 to the design of Brisbane architect, John Hall. The building is now used as a Technical College and College of Advanced Education. [Information from Queensland Heritage Register]

Creator.. Sidney Richardson
Copyright expired








Stuparts Drapery Palace, Kent and Bazaar Streets, Maryborough, ca. 1900 Creator unidentified















Bungalow Theatre, Kent Street, Maryborough, ca. 1909     First open air movie theatre in Maryborough









St Paul's Anglican Church Maryborough Queensland. St Paul's Anglican Church was constructed as the third Maryborough Church of England, replacing a timber church on the same site. The building was designed by prominent Queensland architect, FDG Stanley in 1879. A large memorial hall, designed by local architect, POE Hawkes, was added to the church site in 1921. [Information from Queensland Heritage Register]






The name Walkers Ltd. is synonomous with Maryborough. There would be very few in the city who haven't had some connection with Walkers Limited, engineering works, either within their family or within their circle of friends. They have held many government contracts over the years...

Steam locomotive 721-1923 in front of the Grand Hotel, Maryborough, ca 1923. This locomotive was one of twenty three locomotives built by Walkers Limited for the Queensland Government between 1922 and 1923. History



Wikipedia has a number of entries re Walkers Ltd. To quote a little from one..
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walkers_Limited

History


HMAS Toowoomba in 1941

"Mary Ann", the first steam locomotive built in Queensland, built by John Walker & Co, circa 1875

Preserved Queensland BB18¼ classat Enoggera in April 2009

Preserved Emu Bay Railway 10 class on the Zig Zag Railway in July 2011

In 1863 John Walker and three friends set up the Union Foundry of John Walker & Co in Ballarat. In 1867 a branch was opened in Maryborough.[1]
The Ballarat assets were disposed of in 1879 and in 1884, the business became a limited company under the title John Walker & Co Limited, being renamed Walkers Limited in 1888. The company produced most of the parts for machinery at sugar mills.[2]
In 1980 Walkers Limited was sold to Evans Deakin Industries. It was included in the purchase of Evans Deakin by Downer Group in March 2001 and today the Maryborough factory continues to operate as part of Downer Rail.[3][4]
In 2003 Bundaberg Foundry Engineers completed the acquisition of the Walkers Sugar Business and moved to change the operating name to Bundaberg Walkers Engineering in January 2008.[5]
Ships
In 1884, the firm began work on five hopper barges for the Queensland Department of Harbours & Rivers. During construction the decision was taken to convert them to also serve as auxiliary gunboats, which made them the largest warships built in Australia before federation. During World War II, Walkers constructed two River-class frigates, a Bay-class frigate and seven Bathurst-class corvettes, in addition to other smaller vessels. Post war naval contracts included seven Attack-class patrol boats in the late 1960s and eight Balikpapan-class landing craft heavy in the early 1970s. After the completion of the latter, Walker's Maryborough shipyard closed in 1974.


The photos are of just a few of the ships and trains that Walkers built.



A new train for Brisbane's suburban network sits next to an older refurbished unit at Downer Rail's facility in Maryborough
File:SMU260AND220.JPG
Sourced via TROVE

















One of the things that I love about Maryborough is that so many of the older buildings remain.. it has a character all of it's own... whether it be the public buildings such as the splendid City Hall...


City Hall, Maryborough, QLD. Stuart Edwards. - Own work  Public Domain
File:MaryBorough CityHall.jpg  Created: 1 November 2006

and the Post Office Hotel...and so many more.

Maryborough's Post Office Hotel on Wharf Street, one of the city's many heritage buildings.
Stuart Edwards. - Own work
File:Maryborough POHotel.jpg
Created: 1 November 2006











There have been many floods over the years, our family was stopped by one of them back in the 1960's, not that we minded one bit, as we got to see more of the city.

Flooding of the Mary River along Richmond Street, Maryborough, 1893.
File:StateLibQld 1 52544 Flooding of the Mary River along Richmond Street, Maryborough, 1893.jpg
Created: 1 January 1893







 Maryborough Chronicle, Wide Bay & Burnett Advertiser 26 Feb 1918



As with communities everywhere, World War I affected Maryborough and the citizens were anxious to hear news 'from the front'.
They would have been both relieved and upset to hear this news from a one of their own who had been a school teacher. 
Of course, I had to follow through to see if Lieut. Bernard Mahoney made it back... he did. Despite being hospitalised for a number of illnesses and injuries...
If you wish to read more about him, I suggest you go to SODA and enter the barcode shown in the black top bar, under Barcode Retrieval. http://soda.naa.gov.au
That will bring up this...






It's quite a big file, but you can easily download it as a .pdf, by clicking on the printer symbol and then taking the option of exporting as a .pdf.





The war memorial takes pride of place in Maryborough... as it does in many towns... 
War Memorial, Maryborough, ca. 1922.
File:StateLibQld 2 74239 War Memorial, Maryborough, ca. 1922.jpg



















Maryborough War Memorial, 2008
Mattinbgn - Own work
CC BY-SA 3.0 File:MaryboroughWarMemorial.JPG
Created: 19 November 2008
Free to use



There is so much more to Maryborough, but it will have to wait till another day...but I couldn't leave this without showing you one of my favourite places... Brennan and Geraghty's Store...it alone, is worth a visit...

Brennan & Geraghtys Store & two adjacent buildings and stables (1992)

Of course, you have to look inside.. it is now preserved as a museum.. a place to ooh and aah over almost forgotten items.. and prices we can only dream of. Of course, it does have it's own Wikipedia page... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brennan_&_Geraghtys_Store

Inside Brennan and Geraghty’s Store Museum, Lennox Street, Maryborough. State Library Qld

and a final short treat... for now.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Queen%27s_Park,_Maryborough

Queen's Park is a heritage-listed botanic garden at Sussex Street, MaryboroughFraser Coast RegionQueensland, Australia. A reserve for the botanical gardens was gazetted in October 1873. It contains the Maryborough War Memorial. It was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 21 October 1992.[1]
************

Further reading...












Some of the notable people associated with Maryborough... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maryborough,_Queensland
In 2017, the Fraser Coast Regional Council established Maryborough's Walk of Achievers which places plaques along the streets of Maryborough celebrating the achievements of its residents.[69]