Tuesday, 30 January 2018


Justinian and Surprize standing into Sydney Bay, Norfolk Island 23 August 1790 
From the collections of the 

(Mitchell Library)  Dictionary of Sydney

While browsing through TROVE, searching for more articles on convict ships, I came across this arcticle in  the 
Observer (Adelaide, SA : 1905 - 1931), Saturday 30 January 1926, page 43

Observer (Adelaide, SA : 1905 - 1931), Saturday 30 January 1926, page 43

 It's long, it's both interesting and at times, a little tedious, but all good things come to those who persevere. I wasn't able to do as I usually do, download in .pdf and convert to .jpg to be able to post here, so I am presenting you with the text instead. It gives a great insight to the early days of the arrival of the convict ships, and just how many voyages were taken by so many. It also tells the story of so many vessels, starting with the Sirius, that is the ship, not the character out of Harry Potter. 

As it's a very long article, I have chosen to intersperse it with various related items. Enjoy...

By A.T.Saunders

On Friday, March 11, 1787, the fleet, under Capt. Phillip sailed from England for New South Wales, and "cleared the Channel" on the 16th. It arrived at Table Bay October 18, 1787, and on November 8, 3 mares, 3 colts, 1 stallion, 7 cows, 1 bull, 1 bull calf, and sows, boars, goats, ewes, and rams, &c., were taken on board the various ships as live stock for the colony."' On November 12, 1787, by signal the fleet weighed anchor and sailed, and on the 16th Capt. Phillip announced his intention of leaving his ship, the war vessel Sirius, and the fleet, and going forward in the Supply, brig, an armed tender commanded by Lieut. Henry Lidgbird Ball.  On November 25, 1787, Capt. Phillip went on board the Supply, which vessel, with the Alexander, Scarborough, and Friendship, transports, quitted the fleet. On January 7, 1788, the Sirius sighted the South Cape, New Holland (South Cape, Tasmania, was then not known or suspected to be other than the south part of Australia, and not an island). By 9 a.m. on January 20, 1788, the Sirius and the transports left with her were safe at anchor in Botany Bay, where the Supply and Capt. Phillip had arrived on January 18, and the transports that had left the fleet with the Supply had arrived on January 19. Governor Phillip had immediately on his arrival examined Botany Bay, and found many objections to it.

HMS Sirius weathering Tasmans Head 1791
 From the collections of the 

(Dixson Galleries)      Dictionary of Sydney

Meeting with La Perouse.
On the arrival of the Sirius Governor Phillip, Capt. Hunter, Capt. Collins, and a lieutenant, the master of the Sirius, and some marines embarked in three boats to examine Port Jackson and Broken Bay. The coast round Port Jackson promised little, but pleased them by soon showing a fine harbour capable of affording ample security for a large fleet. On one of the coves it was resolved to fix the colony, and then the Governor and his party, returned to Botany Bay. Lieut. King, who had been left in Botany Bay, had, in the absence of Governor Phillip, found nothing to induce the Governor to alter the determination he had made to fix at Port Jackson, and the removal would have taken place next morning had not two strange sail appeared about daylight. They were the Boussole and Astrolabe, French ships, under M. de la Perouse. Governor Phillip, with a party of artificers taken from the convicts, and some seamen of the Sirius, arrived at Port Jackson 25/1/1788, and on the next day ground enough was cleared to encamp the Governor's guard. Convicts landed during the next morning near a stream of fresh water at the head of the (Sydney) Cove. (The stream was the Tank, or Pitt stream, Pitt street.) The whole party that had arrived were assembled that evening on the point where they landed, on which was erected a flagstaff; the Union Jack (Ireland not then included) was displayed, and the marines fired several volleys: between these the healths of the Royal Family and success to the new colony were drunk by the Governor and officers; and to conclude the evening the Sirius and convoy arrived from Botany Bay.

Composition of the Fleet.
The first fleet consisted of the Sirius, of 20 guns, 520 tons burden, John Hunter second captain—for as Capt. Phillip was to hold the office of Governor a second captain was requisite to command her in Capt. Phillip's absence. As the Sirius was going on particular service, besides her two captains, she had three lieutenants, 1 master, purser, surgeon, with two surgeons' mates, boatswain, gunner, and a detachment of marines. The Supply, brig, was commissioned as an armed tender, commanded by Lieut. Ball. The six transports were the Prince of Wales, 334 tons; Charlotte, 348 tons; Lady Penrhyn, 338 tons; Scarborough, 418 tons; Alexander, 453 tons; and Friendship, 228 tons, on which vessels were 767 males, 220 females, and 27 children, destined for the colony. There were three store ships—the Fishbourne, 378 tons; Borrowdale, 272 tons; and Golden Grove, 331 tons, the last carrying one man and two women for the colony.
The two French vessels left Botany Bay in February, 1788, after having buried on its shore Abbe Le Receveur, who died in Botany Bay on February 17, apparently the first white to die and be buried in New South Wales. Three transports -Scarborough, Charlotte, and Lady Penrhyn—after discharging at Sydney, left for China, and the Supply sailed  13/2/1788 for Norfolk Island, and returned in 34 days.

More information about the various ships here..

Movements of Transports.
In May, 1788, the Governor caused a return of the live stock to be made, which showed that the colony then had 5 cows, 2 bulls, 1 stallion, 3 mares, 3 colts, 29 sheep, 19 goats, 25 pigs, 49 hogs, 5 rabbits, 18 turkeys, 35 ducks, 29 geese, 122 fowls, and 827 chickens. The Supply sailed for Lord Howe Island in quest of fowl and turtle on May 8, 1788, as scurvy was prevalent. After his voyage thither, Lieut. Ball, of the Supply, had landed on Norfolk Island at a bay which he had named Sydney Bay, and during his return voyage to Sydney he had discovered an island which he named Lord Howe Island, and on which were many birds and turtles. The Supply arrived back in Sydney 25/5/1788. She had been unable to procure any turtle, but had seen a rock which Lieut. Ball called Ball Pyramid from its shape. The Supply again sailed for Norfolk Island, 20/7/1788, and the transports Prince of Wales, Alexander, Friendship, and Borrowdale, having sailed for England on July 14. Two transports now remained in Sydney, the Fishbourne and the Golden Grove. The Supply arrived from Norfolk Island 26/8/1788, and the Sirius, after landing her guns, left Sydney on February 2 for the Cape of Good Hope for seed and flour, and the same day the Golden Grove received on board 32 convicts, a party of marines, and two seamen of the Sirius, for Norfolk Island.  The Golden Grove arrived back from Norfolk Island 10/11/1788, with favourable accounts from the island; and 19/11/1788 the Golden Grove and Fishbourne sailed for England, leaving only the Supply in Sydney, and she made
another voyage to Norfolk Island, and arrived back in Sydney 24/2/1789. The Sirius arrived from the Cape 6/5/1789, with Sour for the settlement and 12 months provisions for her crew. The Supply, with marines and Lieut. Creswell, sailed for Norfolk Island 5/6/1789, and duly returned, and 11/11/1789 again sailed for Norfolk Island. In October a vessel had been completed and launched in Sydney, which vessel was employed in conveying goods between Sydney and Parramatta, then Rose Hill: The Supply, 21/12/1789, arrived, having visited Lord Howe Island, where 18 turtle were "turned;" she sailed again 7/1/1790, and arrived back 10/2/1790. Oh March 5, 1790, 116 male convicts, 68 female convicts, and 27 children, with two companies of marines and their officers, a surgeon, and Lieutenant Governor Hunter, sailed on board the Sirius and Supply for Norfolk Island, where the Sirius was wrecked, leaving only the Supply for communication between Sydney and Norfolk Island. The Supply brought back to Sydney 30 of the crew of the Sirius.

Food Shortage
As the settlements were in dire distress for food, the Supply sailed, 17/4/1790, for Batavia to purchase provisions. The transport Lady Juliana, with 222 female convicts, arrived 3/6/1790, having sailed 29/7./1789. H.M.S. Guardian, of 44 guns, commanded by Lieut. Riou, and bound for Sydney, 23/12/1789, struck on an island, and returned to the Cape two days before the Lady Juliana arrived at the Cape from England. Fortunately the Justinian, storeship, arrived in Sydney 20/6/1790, and 26/6/1790 the Surprize, transport, commanded by Nicholas Anstis, who was mate of the Lady Penrhyn, arrived, and two days after the Scarborough and Neptune also arrived. The Surprize and Justinian were ordered to Norfolk Island, and the latter sailed 23/7/1790 for Canton, via Norfolk Island, the Lady Juliana followed in a few days. The Surprize sailed for Norfolk Island 1/8/1790. The Scarborough sailed 8/8/1790, and the Neptune 21/8/1790. The Supply arrived 19/9/1790 from Batavia, after an absence of six months and two days. The Dutch snow Waaksamheyd (meaning "good look-out"), which Lieut. Ball, of the Supply, had chartered in Batavia, arrived in Sydney 17/12/1790 with provisions, the cost of which, and those brought by the Supply, being £11,688 6/9. The Supply sailed for Norfolk Island 22/1/1791, and returned 28/2/1791,. and 2/3/1791 Lieut. Thomas Edgar hoisted a pennant on board the above Dutch snow, which the Governor hired to take the Sirius's crew to England, and she sailed 28/3/1791. The Supply had again sailed for Norfolk Island, and did not arrive back in Sydney till 30/5/1791. The Mary Ann, transport, arrived 19/7/1791, with convicts and provisions; the Matilda, 1/8/1791; the Atlantic, 20/8/1791; and the Salamander, 21/8/1791, which last ship was ordered on to Norfolk Island. The William and Ann, also with convicts and stores, arrived 28/8/1791, and 3/9/1791 convicts and soldiers left Sydney in the Salamander for Norfolk Island, she having returned from the island to Sydney. The Gorgon, British warship, 44 guns, Capt. Parker, arrived 21/9/1791, from the Cape, bringing therefrom stock and provisions and (26/9/1791) the Active arrived with Barrington and other convicts and the Queen, the first vessel from Ireland, also arrived (26/9/1791) with convicts.

Mutiny of Convicts.
The Albermarle from England, with convicts, arrived 13/10/1791. During her voyage a mutiny occurred, and two of  the ringleaders were hanged at the yardarm. The Britannia, with convicts, arrived 14/10/1791, and the Admiral Barrington arrived 26/10/1791. The Atlantic, with Governor King and family, sailed for Norfolk Island 26/10/1791, and the Britannia, Mary Ann, William and Ann, and the Matilda went whaling. The Supply, commanded by Lieut. Ball, sailed for England 26/11/1791, and the Albermarle and Active sailed for India 3/12/1791, and H.M. ship Gorgon sailed for England 18/12/1791. The Pitt, with convicts, arrived 14/2/1792, bringing a sloop in frame of 41 tons burden. The Pitt sailed for Norfolk Island in March. The Atlantis from Calcutta, with provisions, arrived 20/6/1792, and (26/7/1792) the Britannia, store ship, arrived from Falmouth. The Atlantic arrived from Norfolk Island 30/9/1792, just as the Britannia was about sailing out of Sydney, but she did not get away till 24/10/1792, the officers of New South Wales having chartered her to go the Cape for stock and goods for them. The East Indiaman, Royal Admiral (Capt. Bond) arrived 7/19-1792 from England with stores and provisions. The Philadelphia-American brigantine Captain Patrickson arrived from Philadelphia 1/11/1792, with goods for sale. She was the first unofficial vessel to arrive in Australia with merchandise for sale, on foreign account; all her cargo was sold in Sydney, and she was paid £150 to go to Norfolk Island with provisions and stores.

Governor Phillip Returns to England.
The Royal Admiral sailed for Canton 13/11/1792, having sold the bulk of her cargo that was privately owned and for sale. The Kitty arrived 18/11/1792, with a few convicts after a disastrous voyage. She brought two chests of dollars for the Government. Governor Phillip sailed for  England in the Atlantic 11/12/1792, taking with him two aboriginal men. Another American ship, the Hope, arrived in Sydney 5/12/1792. She was from Rhode Island, and called in ostensibly for wood and water, but really to sell her cargo. The whaler Chesterfield put into Sydney the same day (5/12/1792) for repairs, being the first ship which had done so. The Bellona, with 17 female convicts, arrived 16/1/1793. She brought the first five settlers and their families; also five pipes of port wine and other goods, a large portion of which were spoiled en route. The Bellona settlers were allotted land on what was named Liberty Plains, as the settlers there were all free except Walter Rouse a good man and a bricklayer by trade. The Bellona sailed 19/2/1793 for Canton, her master having been permitted to take in his ship two convicts whose terms had expired, and the ship was smoked, which  produced four convicts, who were secreted on board the Bellona.  The Shah Hormuzear, Capt. Bampton, arrived from  Calcutta 25/2/1793, with a cargo for sale,  and (13/3/1793) two Spanish ships anchored in Sydney, they were the Descuvierta (Discovery) and Atrevide (Intrepid) .
In 1790 the British Government had  sent out orders that these vessels should be given every hospitality. They built an observatory near the point of the cove.

Boys Killed by Lightning.
The Kitty arrived from Norfolk Island 21/3/1793, bringing Governor King and several undesirables. The Chesterfield and Shah Hormuzear sailed 19/4/1793 for  Bengal to get provisions and stores for the Government, but a ship hove in sight and they waited. The sighted vessel was the Daedalus, store ship, from Nootka Sound, North America, for assistance for
Capt. Vancouver, at Sandrouth Islands or Nootka Sound, in October, 1793. She had touched at New Zealand and brought two young Maoris to teach the Norfolk Islanders how to manufacture the flax plant, and were just in time to be put on board the Shah Hormuzear (the tragedy of these Shah vessels after leaving Norfolk Island was printed in Calcutta). The Britannia arrived 15/6/1793 from the Cape after eight months absence, she shipped 38 cows, of which 29 died, three mares, and 12 goats, of which three died. Of the stock embarked at various times for the colony, out of 15 bulls 12 died, of 119 cows 91 died, and of six calves one died. The Daedalus sailed 1/7/1793 to join Capt. Vancouver, and took from Sydney six convicts and two seamen as part of her crew; also an aboriginal whom the Governor sent to learn the English language. The vessel brought in frame by the Pitt was launched 24/7/1793, and called the Francis. The Boddingtons, from Cork, with convicts, arrived 7/8/1793. The Britannia and Francis sailed for Dusky Bay 8/9/1793, and 17/9/1793 the Sugar Cane arrived from Ireland with convicts and provisions. One convict was hanged on the voyage for mutiny. The Boddingtons and the Sugar Cane sailed 13/10/1793. Two boys under a tree during a storm were killed (20/10/1793) by lightning, and 29/10/1793, the Fairy, an American snow arrived from Boston in New England for repairs, and, bound to the north-west coast of America. The Francis arrived from Dusky Bay, 7/11/1793, sailed for Norfolk Island 5/1/1794, arrived back 12/2/1794, and reported that the two New Zealand aborigines had so well taught people on Norfolk Island to make canvas from the island flax that they had been sent home to New Zealand at their own wish by the Britannia from Norfolk Island. It was only a four day's passage from Norfolk Island to New Zealand, and on the 10th day Governor King, who had also sailed in the Britannia, arrived again in her at Norfolk Island, and she again sailed from Norfolk Island two days after. The store ship William, Capt. Folger, arrived from Cork with provisions (10/3/1794) just in time to prevent famine in Sydney, and next day the Arthur, a small brig of 95 tons, arrived from Bengal with beef pork, sugar, rum, and calicos. The Daedalus arrived from the northwest coast of America (3/4/1794), bringing the aboriginal who sailed in her from Sydney; he had not acquired much English, but he was much liked by everybody in the Daedalus.

Of particular interest to me is the "Sugar Cane", for one of the convicts on board her in 1793, was to become my 4th great grandmother, Bridget Heslin/Eslin. Her brother, Patrick, was on board the Boddington, but as to whether they knew about each other's fate at the time, is unknown.

"Bridget was tried in July 1792 in Dublin Ireland and was then transported to Cork by ship to await transportation aboard the Sugar Cane.  The ship sailed on 13th April 1793 so she would have been in custody for about 9 months waiting to sail.  She was only 18 years old but at least had a friend or relative, Mary Hughes on board with her, along with Joseph Kearns who would have also been known to the family.  Bridget's brother, Patrick, was aboard another ship of that fleet, The Boddingtons, but whether Bridget knew this or not is unknown. Unlike Robert's trip, all aboard the Sugar Cane arrived on the 17th September 1793 in good health with the loss of one life (execution) on the trip.
Never-the-less Bridget was only 18, her father had been executed, her mother and another brother (John) had been transported elsewhere and she and Patrick were now in a new colony just over five years after it had been first settled.  Things would have looked so alien, I can only feel that she felt scared and frightened at what lay ahead of her.  At this stage we can only guess that she was either sent to the Female Factory at Parramatta or to the farms at Toongabbie, however sometime possibly in in late1795 she met Robert Hobbs and their first of nine children was born (registered Sydney) on the 19th September 1796.  All other children after that were born in the Hawkesbury area, most of them at Pitt Town."

 Written by cousin Bev Woodman. You can read more about Bridget and Robert here..
More about the voyage of the Sugar Cane..
List of female convicts on board the Sugar Cane

Courtesy of TROVE

Several Provision Ships.
The Arthur sailed 3/4/1794 and the next day the Francis, arrived from Norfolk Island. The Indispensable with stores arrived from England, 24/5/1794, and the Britannia arrived from Batavia 1/6/1794 (the day of Lord Howe's victory).  She was attacked by pirates in the Straits of Malacca, and therefore did not go to Bengal. The store ship Speedy arrived with provisions from England, 8/6/1794, and the Halcyon, an American, from Rhode Island, arrived 14/6/1794, with food and goods for sale. On July 5, 1794, the Hope, an American, arrived from Rhode Island with provisions and spirits, but there was no buyer for her foodstuffs. This was the first instance of a vessel being unable to sell provisions' in Sydney. The Indispensable and Halcyon sailed (8/7/1794) for Bengal and Canton, and the next day the Fancy arrived from Bombay with rice and dholl. The Francis returned from Norfolk Island, 28/7/1794. The Britannia sailed on September 1 for the second time to the Cape for live stock and goods for the officers, and on September 10 the Resolution, and next day the Salamander arrived from England with provisions. The Daedalus sailed for Norfolk Island (26/9/1794), and the Fancy sailed three days afterwards. The Mercury, an American, arrived from Rhode Island (17/10/1794). On the 23rd the Daedalus arrived back from Norfolk Island, and on the 25th the Surprize arrived with convicts —Muir, Palmer, Skirving, Margarot, and others—from England. The Daedalus sailed for England, taking Lieut.-Governor Grose on December 15,- and on the 24th the Experiment arrived from Bengal with stores. The Francis returned from Port Stephens (1/3/1795), and the Britannia arrived from the Cape (4/3/1795), bringing one stallion, 29 mares, 3 fillies, and 12 slice p alive, but 11 mares died on the voyage.  She was hired to go to India for provisions. On March 21 the Francis arrived from Hawkesbury with Indian corn. The Endeavour, 800 tons, Capt. Bampton, arrived (31/5/1795), from Bombay with 132 cattle and some rice, and the Britannia sailed for India on June 18. H.M.S. Providence arrived from England via Port Stephens, where Capt. Broughton found and took on board four miserable objects of men who had escaped from Sydney in 1790. The Fancy arrived (3/9/1795) from Norfolk Island, and the Reliance and Supply arrived from England on September 7. On board the Reliance was Governor Hunter. The Fancy and Endeavour sailed for India (18/9/1795), taking about 100 time-expired convicts. The Young William, from Cork, arrived (4/10/1795), and the Providence sailed for Nootka Sound nine days afterwards. The Supply sailed for Norfolk Island (10/10/1795), and the Young William for Canton (29/10/1795). The Sovereign, with provisions, arrived (5/11/1795), and the Supply arrived from Norfolk Island, December 20. The Sovereign sailed for Bengal (27/12/1795). From Calcutta the Arthur arrived New Year's Day, 1790, and the following day the Surprize returned from Norfolk Island.

Escaping Convicts.
A playhouse was opened in Sydney (16/1/1796), and a week later the Ceres arrived from England with stores. Next day the Experiment, a snow, arrived from Bengal with soap, sugar, spirits, calicos, and muslins for sale, and on the same day the Otter, an American, Capt. Dorr, arrived from Boston. She put in either to sell cargo or to enable some convicts to escape (a practice which the Americans continued till 1875, when the Catalpa took away Lemans from WesternAustralia) the Reliance had sailed for Norfolk Island 21/1/1796, and on February 11 the Marquis Cornwallis arrived from Ireland with convicts, bringing the news that the British had taken possession of the Cape of Good Hope. Gen. Craig and Commodore Blanket sent official accounts to Governor Hunter of the taking of the Cape and offered any services in their power for the benefit of New South Wales. A plan of the convicts to take possession of this ship was discovered on the voyage, part of it the female convicts were to execute, and that was to mix powdered glass into the flour used for the sailors puddings. The Abigail, another American from Rhode Island, with goods for sale, arrived the same day as the Marquis Cornwallis, and on February 18, 1796 the American vessel Otter sailed, taking with her convict Thomas Muir, who bad been transported for sedition, also several other convicts. Consequently, the Abigail was made to anchor in Neutral Bay so called in February, 1789, because the Governor set it apart for foreign ships to anchor in. The Reliance returned from Norfolk Island 5/3/1796, and the Supply sailed for that island 24/3/1796. The Assistance arrived from Smoky Bay 17/3/1796, and the Supply returned from Norfolk Island 18/4/1976. Next day the Susan Trotter American Snow arrived from Rhode Island with goods for sale, and on the 30th the Indispensable arrived from England with female convicts. The Britannia arrived from Calcutta and Madras 11/5/1796, with rice and other provisions, the property of the officers and also one mare, 5 cows, and a calf for sale. With this ship arrived Mr. PhillipB, an army surgeon and Lieut. Campbell, to try and get 200 recruits from the convict expirees for the Bengal army. In June, 1796 Mr. Bass and two companions went on an excursion to the (Blue) Mountains and reached the highest summit. The Francis sailed for Norfolk Island 21/6/1796, and returned 29/7/1796, and an officer who was leaving the colony sold 100 goats to the Government for £492 10/. The Susan sailed for Canton 8/8/1796, taking two women and a few men who were allowed to leave the colony. An American ship, the Grand Turk, arrived from Boston | 23/8/1796, but her goods did not sell as the market was overstocked. The Supply sailed for Norfolk Island 20/9/1796 and the Reliance, Britannia, and Francis  29/9/1796. Capt. Collins embarked on the Britannia for England, and Governor King, of Norfolk Island, was also to embark on the Britannia. The Reliance was to go to the Cape for livestock. The Prince of Wales arrived from England 1/11/1796, with stores, and the Francis arrived from Norfolk Island 13/11/1796.

Drastic Treatment of Perjurers.
The Sylph arrived 17/11/1796, with provisions. The Prince of Wales sailed for China 23/11/1790, and the Sylph on December 6, The American ship Mercury arrived 11/1/1797 from Manilla to refit, and on 16/5/1797 the Supply arrived from the Cape with 31 cows, 5 mares, and 27 sheep, 8 cows, 2 bulls, and 13 sheep, having died on the voyage. Three men from the ship Sydney Cove, from Bengal, which had been beached on Preservation Island in February, 1797, arrived in Sydney 17/5/1797, and ten days later the Francis and the Eliza, a long boat, sailed for the wreck of the Sydney Cove, and on that same day the Britannia arrived from Ireland with convicts, as did the Ganges 3/6/1797. The Reliance arrived from the Cape 26/6/1797, with 26 cows, 3 bulls, and about 60 sheep and on 5/7/1797 the Francis arrived with the remainder of the crew of the Sydney Cove except six who were left in charge of the wreck. The Francis sailed on 7/8/1797 for Norfolk Island. In September, 1797 the boat Cumberland is first mentioned, when she sailed from Sydney to the Hawkesbury. The Deptford brig arrived from Madras 20/9/1797, with goods for sale, and in October, 1797 the Supply was pronounced unfit for further service. The same month three witnesses were convicted of perjury and were made to stand in pillory with their ears nailed to the rostrum while the mob threw dirt and rotten eggs at them. The Echtford sailed for the Coromandel coast in November, 1797, and in December, 1797, the Francis sailed for the wreck of the Sydney Cove. The Irish convicts were very troublesome, so seven were given 200 lashes each. The Francis returned from the wreck of the Sydney Cove 20/1/1798, bringing a mare from the wreck and also five Lascars, one having died at the wreck. These Lascars had lived on birds and kangaroos and in a small boat had made several excursions, and saw a group of islands reaching as far as they had seen to the westward from this and from his own observations the Governor conceived it highly probable that there were many passages through to the ocean westward making Van Dieman’s Land then the southernmost part of New South Wales an island (and thus anticipating Bass and Flinders. The Francis again sailed for the wreck of the Sydney Cove 1/2/1798, and duly returned.

Rescued Missionaries.
Many months had elapsed since a store ship had arrived from England, and amongst the Irish a report prevailed that French warships would destroy Sydney and liberate the convicts. On May 2, 1798, some Irishmen who had been searching for a road to China were brought in. The Nautilus, brig, arrived in great distress from Otaheite (Tahiti), 14/5/1798, she had lost her passage to the north-west coast of America, and had been at Kamscatka and the Sandwich Islands. At Otaheite the missionaries were found shut up within their little fortress, so 19 men, women, and children were brought to Sydney, leaving six or seven on the island. The Barwell arrived from England, 18/5/1798. with convicts, stores and provisions, and the news that the Lady Shore, for New South Wales with convicts and troops, had been lost, for after killing the master the vessel was run into  Rio-de-la-Plata and delivered to the Spaniards. The Reliance and Francis sailed for Norfolk Island, 29/5/1798, and on 10/6/1798 the Hunter arrived from Calcutta with Indian goods, cows, and horses for sale. A small decked boat, sloop rigged, had been built at Norfolk Island, and named the Norfolk, and arrived at Sydney 15/6/1798, and the Cornwall, whaler, arrived from the Cape to refit 1/7/1798, bringing on account of Spanish cruisers being off Cape Horn, and therefore the whalers of the southern fishery had been directed to pass into Australian seas. The Cornwall was followed by the Eliza, 4/7/1798, and the Sally, 8/7/1798. The Argo, an American schooner, arrived from the Isle of France with salt provisions, French brandy, and other goods, which, found a ready sale. The Britannia arrived from England with convicts, 187/1798, and the Reliance and Francis returned from Norfolk Island, 27/7/1798. 

Whalers at Work.
The Pomona and Ciana, southern whalers, arrived 20/8/1798. The Barwell sailed for China, 17/8/1788, touching at Norfolk Island. The Hunter, a snow, Captain Fern, sailed 20/9/1798 from NewZealand for a cargo of spars for Bengal, and 1/10/1798 the Semiramis, from Rhode Inland for China, arrived. The Semiramis and Argo for China, and the Nautilus with the Norfolk with Bass and Flinders, sailed from Sydney 7/10/1798. The American ship Ann Hope, for China, wanting wood and water, anchored in Botany Bay 20/10/1708, and sailed three days later. Contrary winds prevented her reaching Port Jackson. The Marquis Cornwallis arrived from the Cape 27/10/1798 with 158 cows and 20 bulls for the Government and a few on private account, and on the same day the whaler Indispensable, Captain Wilkinson, arrived, but sailed the same day. The crew of the Supply (which ship had been condemned) were employed making a half-moon battery on the east point of Sydney Cove. The Marquis Cornwallis sailed 3/12/1798, taking several convicts, without permission to do so. The Francis arrived from Norfolk Island 19/12/1798, and reported that the alleged Sir Charles Middleton Island did not exist. On Christmas Day the Nautilus arrived from the southward sealing. She had left 14 men on Cape Barren Island to collect skins and oil. The whalers Indispensable and Britannia arrived 29/12/1798 with 114 tons of spermaciti oil. Another whaler, the Eliza, put into Botany Bay for wood and water. She had 45 tons of oil. and reported having seen a wreck on New Caledonia supposed to be a whaler. The crew of the Supply completed the half-moon battery, and some of her guns were mounted in it. The Norfolk, with Bass and Flinders, arrived 12/1/1799, having sailed the previous October, having discovered Bass Straits and circumnavigated Tasmania. In January, 1799, the Diana arrived from Norfolk Island. The whaler Rebecca arrived and brought the first news of the Battle of the Nile, and the Nautilus was sent to Norfolk Island with goods brought by the iDana. The Britannia, whaler, also came in for repairs with nearly 26 tons of oil.

A Spanish Prize.
The American vessel Rebecca arrived 5/3/1799 with goods for sale, and 24/4/1799 the Nautilus returned from Norfolk Island, and with her the Nostra Senora de Bethlehem, a Spanish prize to two whalers, who captured her off Cape Blanco, Peru. She was from Lima to Guiaquill. She was condemned in Sydney as a legal prize, and her cargo of sugar and flour was sold, but some spirits were not. allowed to be sold. The Norfolk returned from Norfolk Island 26/4/1799, and 3/5/1799 the Buffalo arrived from England via the Cape, where she shipped 66 cattle, which she landed in good condition. Mr. Raven was her commander, late of the Britannia, and the Buffalo was to replace the Supply, so Lieutenant Kent, with the other officers of the Supply and her crew, went on board the Buffalo. Her figurehead was a Kangaroo, which interested and pleased the aboriginals. The Diana and Eliza, whalers, came in to refit and refresh  2/6/1799, and next day the the Indispensable, whaler, sailed, having been careened and repaired in Sydney Cove. The Albion, store ship, from England, arrived 29/6/1799, after the quick passage of 106 days. She was commanded by Mr. Ebor Bunker, who had been in Port Jackson in the William and Ann hi 1791. The Albion was fitted out as a whaler, and sailed for the southern seas. The Hillsborough, with male convicts, arrived 26/7/1799 : 300 convicts embarked, but 101 died. The Norfolk, commanded by Lieut. Flinders, with a crew from the two King's ships (Reliance and Buffalo) and an aboriginal named Bong-Ree, sailed 8/7/1799 northward on a six weeks' exploring trip, and arrived back 20/8/1799. The crew of the warships completed a work on Point Maskelyne with embrasures, and some guns were also placed in a commanding position above the windmill on the west side of the cove, and a work had been thrown up on Garden Island. The Resource, an American ship  arrived 6/9/1799 from Rhode Island to China, and, having refreshed her crew, sailed 14/9/1799, taking several seamen belonging to the King's ships, to the injury of other Americans who might hereafter visit Sydney.

Sailors Befriend Convicts.
The Buffalo sailed for the Cape 15/9/1799. She was to have taken a cargo of coals, but it was too late in the season for her to do so. In the beginning of October the Eliza (whaler) arrived, and the Spanish Prize had been bought by Mr. Kingston, late master of the Hillsborough) and two free men of Sydney, who renamed her the Hunter, and she sailed for Bengal, but Ann Holmes was found on board as the Hunter was sailing down Port Jackson, so the ship was seized and secured. As it could not be legally proved in Sydney that Ann Holmes was a convict, Capt. Hingston was acquitted. The Hillsborough when searched had 30 convicts on board, secreted by the sailors without the knowledge of the ship's officers. H.M. ship Reliance sailed for Norfolk Island from Sydney (2/11/1799), and next day the Walker arrived from England with provisions, by which ship the Governor received orders to keep a register of all ships entering in and clearing out of the harbour. The Walker also brought four iron 12-pound cannon and advice that the Porpoise would bring £550 in copper coin. The Britannia, whaler, arrived from the whaling grounds (2/11/1799) a full ship, and sailed for England (2/12/1799) with Mr. Haven (who brought out the Buffalo) and five of his officers, and the Walker sailed the same day on a whaling voyage, and also on 2/12/1799 a Spanish prize to three British whalers—the Plumier— anchored in Sydney. She was captured near Cape Corientes, Peru. Her cargo of wine and spirits was condemned as lawful prize, and was removed to the (hulk)_ Supply. The Martha (schooner) came in 14/12/1799 from Bass Straits with 1,000 seal skins and 50 barrels of oil. On Christmas Eve the Reliance and Francis arrived from Norfolk Island, and (3/1/1800) the Swallow, East India packet, arrived en route for China. She saluted the fort on anchoring, and the fort returned the salute—the first time the fort had been saluted and returned it. The Minerva, from Ireland, with convicts, arrived (11/1/1800), all in perfect health, and only three died on the passage. The Governor desired to send the Minerva to Norfolk Island, but did not do so, as the terms demanded were too high, so to avoid imposition the convicts were landed at Sydney. The Fhynne, a Danish snow, from Bengal, chartered by the officers of the colony through an agent they had sent to Bengal, arrived (11/1/1800) with goods for the officers. A convict who attempted to go alongside the Minerva, and persisted though warned to keep off, was shot and killed by the sentry, who was tried, and of course was acquitted.

More Cattle from the Cape.
The Swallow sailed for China (21/1/1800) and (25/1/1809) the Walker, whaler, came in, not having had any success, and reported that the Albion was in the same plight. The Francis and Norfolk arrived timber laden for the building of a vessel in Sydney, and (13/2/1800) the Betsey, whaler, arrived leaky and wanting repairs; she was from the west coast of America, and had 350 barrels of oil on board.  On the same day the Hunter, barque, arrived from Calcutta with a cargo for sale, and next day there arrived a Spanish brig, captured by the British whalers. The Friendship arrived (16/1/1800) from Ireland with convicts. H M.S. Reliance was worn out so she was repaired, and (3/3/1800) sailed for England (Flinders was an officer on her). The Martha, snow, arrived (6/3/1800) from the southward with oil and sealskins, and sailed for Norfolk Island, and the Walker, whaler, also sailed, and the Hunter (14/3/1800) sailed for Norfolk Island. The Speedy arrived from Ireland with convicts and stores (15/4/1800), Capt. Philip Gidley King being a passenger. The Buffalo arrived from the Cape the same day with 85 cows and 20 mares- The Friendship sailed for Bengal, and (7/6/1800) the Belle Sauvage, an American ship from Rhode Island, anchored in Neutral Bay, and sailed (15/6/1800), The Hunter returned from Norfolk Island (8/6/1800), and was directly rechartered for that island, and sailed (21/6/1800) with Major Foveaux. The Martha, from the Hunter with coal, was driven on shore, but was refloated by the crew of the Buffalo, and brought to Sydney. Early in August the Albion, whaler, went into Broken Bay, for wood and water.. The John Jay, an American ship from Rhode Island to China, arrived (21/9/1800), and sold salt beef and pork to the Government at 73/4d. per lb.

Image result for convict ship "Sugar Cane"

Kingston Norfolk Island – buildings from the second settlement

Governor Hunter embarked on the Buffalo for England (28/9/1800), but did not sail till 21/10/1800. Two black swans and three New South Wales emus were put on board the Buffalo, and Lieut. Kent returned to England by her. The H.M.S. Porpoise arrived 7/11/1800, and Royal Admiral. 22/11/1800. Governor Hunter left on the Sydney stocks a vessel of 150 tons burden for the Norfolk Island trade, and a boat called the Cumberland, of 27 tons burden, meant to be armed and schooner-rigged, was also on the stocks. The Governor had sent back to Bengal three vessels, on board which were 54,000 gallons of spirits and wine, not allowed to be landed. In 1801 there was no salt in New South Wales fit for preserving meat, but fortunately a vessel put into Port Jackson from the Cape Verde Islands, and from her about 15 tons were bought, and a vessel under Lieut. Scott was sent to Otabeite to procure pork and salt it there. The King's Birthday (4/6/1801) was celebrated with additional marks of distinction as intelligence had been received of the union of Great Britain and Ireland. The Earl Cornwallis arrived 12/6/1801, with convicts, and stores after a quick passage. The brig Lady Nelson, 60 tons burden, arrived in December, 1801, and surveyed Bass Straits and Western Port. She also went with the Francis to Hunter River and brought between them 45 tons of coals, which were exchanged with the master of the Cornwallis for nails and iron, and thus the natural produce of the country contributed to its wants for the first time. The Francis being worn out, the Governor bought the Harbinger to run to Norfolk Island, as the Porpoise, hitherto used, was wanted for longer voyages. The Supply, long, since condemned, was made a prison hulk.

The Supply

Courtesy of Dictionary of Sydney

A view of Botany Bay A1475003h

Tuesday, 23 January 2018




This great Certificate has kindly been shared by Debbie Miles.
It is a Statuory Declaration attesting to the background of
Daniel Henrickson, a Finnish immigrant, prior to his naturalisation.

This is the first page of 10 of my grandfather's application when he applied for naturalisation in 1910. He had arrived in Australia in 1904. These papers are the property of me, Crissouli.
They were available through 


The paperwork had to be lodged with the Department of External Affairs, though not before references were supplied.

 No large ceremony for him... he took the Oath of Allegiance in the presence of the Chief Magistrate, after satisfying all criteria, including submitting a reference from the Mayor of Potamos, Potamos being his home town in Kythera.

I wonder if any of the people listed in the following had to undergo similar investigations when they applied for their certificates, some twelve years later...

If you find anyone of interest in these lists, why not try looking for further information in TROVE, where these Gazettes were found, by simply searching for their names and town, state. Leave out the streets, and actual dates... you can add those later if needed. Do try as well by omitting the town and state... many migrants moved around before settling in one area.


Commonwealth of Australia Gazette (National : 1901 - 1973), Thursday 9 March 1922 (No.20), page 359
 National Library of Australia http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article232526040

These are a little easier to search as they are in Alphabetical order. 


Commonwealth of Australia Gazette (National : 1901 - 1973), Thursday 11 January 1923 (No.3), page 27 

National Library of Australia http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article232521188

Also in alphabetical order..

Commonwealth of Australia Gazette (National : 1901 - 1973), Thursday 3 May 1923 (No.29), page 610 
National Library of Australia http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article232521978 

Commonwealth of Australia Gazette (National : 1901 - 1973), Thursday 25 October 1923 (No.75), page 2028 
National Library of Australia http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article23252310 

Please note that these are in batches of alphabetical order..

Where to find details of Naturalisation? A few suggestions..








These can take some searching for...

and of course, Google...

See above for variations...

"In 1994, the Keating Government replaced the oath with a Pledge of Commitment to Australia and removed the reference to the Crown:[9]
From this time forward, [under God,]
I pledge my loyalty to Australia and its people,
whose democratic beliefs I share,
whose rights and liberties I respect, and
whose laws I will uphold and obey.
The prospective citizen has the option of making the pledge with or without the words "under God".
There have been no changes since.[7] "  Wikipedia

Australian Citizenship Certificate (Wiki Commons)